The journal was founded in 1981 by NUKLIN Business Association for Research and Development, which assembled nine research institutes from the former SFR Yugoslavia. At that time, the journal was titled NUKLEARNA TEHNOLOGIJA. When SFR Yugoslavia fell apart at the beginning of nineties, NUKLEARNA TEHNOLOGIJA disappeared as well.
In 1995, the journal was renewed by the Yugoslav Nuclear Society as a scientific and professional information journal on peaceful uses of nuclear energy. This important step has supported revival of the activities in the field of nuclear sciences in SR Yugoslavia and helped people who make decisions to maintain scientific development of nuclear idea.
In 2002, the founders of the journal, Yugoslav Nuclear Society, and its publisher, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences have been joined by the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Association as the journal's co-founder. Since then, relying on a broader community of researchers, the journal has been published as an international scientific journal in English titled NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY & RADIATION PROTECTION, under the renewed editorial policy.