XXXVI, No. 1, Pp. 1-106
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Authors: Yehia M. Abbas, Ahmed M. El-Khatib, Mohamed S. Badawi, Mahmoud T. Alabsy, and Osama M. Hagag
Polymer composites of polyvinyl chloride, PVC, were loaded up with micro and nano PbO/CuO particles. The added percentage of each by mass was 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.%, and 40 wt.%, plus 40 wt.% of mixed composite (20 wt.% CuO + 20 wt.% PbO). The mass and linear attenuation coefficients of the investigated composites were measured as a function of gamma-ray energies going from 59.53 keV to 1408.01 keV utilizing standard radioactive point sources. To confirm the validity of these results the attenuation coefficients for bulk composites (PVC + PbO and PVC + CuO) were calculated by using the XCOM software. The results were in good agreement with the values obtained from the experimental work. By comparing the attenuation coefficients of the different composites it was found that those loaded with either nano PbO or CuO have higher values than those loaded with bulk sizes with the same percentage. Also, samples loaded with nano PbO have the highest attenuation coefficients even by comparing them with (20 wt.% CuO + 20 wt.% PbO), especially in the energy region below 1 MeV, but for greater energies, the values become very closed. The investigation of the mechanical properties of such composites due to the injection of bulk and nano metals reveals that tensile strength and Young's modulus of PVC nanocomposite sheets were notably increased with the increasing concentration of CuO and PbO nanoparticles. The CuO nanocomposite showed the highest values of flexural strength, toughness, and tensile strength among all the fabricated nanocomposite sheets.
Key words: polyvinyl chloride, nano lead oxide, nano copper oxide, characterization, nano lead-copper-PVC composite, gamma-ray, attenuation coefficient, mechanical property
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